## Dr. Lashi Bandara

### Researcher

Brunel University London

E-mail: lashi.bandara(at)brunel.ac.uk

Telephone: +44 (0)1895 265107

Homepage: https://www.brunel.ac.uk/people/menaka-b…

## Project

**5**Index theory on Lorentzian manifolds
**37**Boundary value problems and index theory on Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds

## Publications within SPP2026

We consider first-order elliptic differential operators acting on vector bundles over smooth manifolds with smooth boundary, which is permitted to be noncompact. Under very mild assumptions, we obtain a regularity theory for sections in the maximal domain. Under additional geometric assumptions, and assumptions on an adapted boundary operator, we obtain a trace theorem on the maximal domain. This allows us to systematically study both local and nonlocal boundary conditions. In particular, the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer boundary condition occurs as a special case. Furthermore, we study contexts which induce semi-Fredholm and Fredholm extensions.

**Related project(s):****37**Boundary value problems and index theory on Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds

This paper investigates realisations of elliptic differential operators of general order on manifolds with boundary following the approach of Bär-Ballmann to first order elliptic operators. The space of possible boundary values of elements in the maximal domain is described as a Hilbert space densely sandwiched between two mixed order Sobolev spaces. The description uses Calderón projectors which, in the first order case, is equivalent to results of Bär-Bandara using spectral projectors of an adapted boundary operator. Boundary conditions that induce Fredholm as well as regular realisations, and those that admit higher order regularity, are characterised. In addition, results concerning spectral theory, homotopy invariance of the Fredholm index, and well-posedness for higher order elliptic boundary value problems are proven.

Journal | Advances in Mathematics |

Publisher | Elsevier |

Volume | 420 |

Pages | 1-123 |

Link to preprint version | |

Link to published version |

**Related project(s):****37**Boundary value problems and index theory on Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds

The relative index theorem is proved for general first-order elliptic operators that are complete and coercive at infinity over measured manifolds. This extends the original result by Gromov-Lawson for generalised Dirac operators as well as the result of Bär-Ballmann for Dirac-type operators. The theorem is seen through the point of view of boundary value problems, using the graphical decomposition of elliptically regular boundary conditions for general first-order elliptic operators due to Bär-Bandara. Splitting, decomposition and the Phi-relative index theorem are proved on route to the relative index theorem.

**Related project(s):****37**Boundary value problems and index theory on Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds

We study boundary value problems for first-order elliptic differential operators on manifolds with compact boundary. The adapted boundary operator need not be selfadjoint and the boundary condition need not be pseudo-local.

We show the equivalence of various characterisations of elliptic boundary conditions and demonstrate how the boundary conditions traditionally considered in the literature fit in our framework. The regularity of the solutions up to the boundary is proven. We provide examples which are conveniently treated by our methods.

**Related project(s):****5**Index theory on Lorentzian manifolds

In this short survey article, we showcase a number of non-trivial geometric problems that have recently been resolved by marrying methods from functional calculus and real-variable harmonic analysis. We give a brief description of these methods as well as their interplay. This survey is succinct rather than comprehensive, and its aim is to inspire geometers and analysts alike to study these methods so that they can be adapted and potentially applied more widely.

**Related project(s):****5**Index theory on Lorentzian manifolds

Our topological setting is a smooth compact manifold of dimension two or higher with smooth boundary. Although this underlying topological structure is smooth, the Riemannian metric tensor is only assumed to be bounded and measurable. This is known as a rough Riemannian manifold. For a large class of boundary conditions we demonstrate a Weyl law for the asymptotics of the eigenvalues of the Laplacian associated to a rough metric. Moreover, we obtain eigenvalue asymptotics for weighted Laplace equations associated to a rough metric. Of particular novelty is that the weight function is not assumed to be of fixed sign, and thus the eigenvalues may be both positive and negative. Key ingredients in the proofs were demonstrated by Birman and Solomjak nearly fifty years ago in their seminal work on eigenvalue asymptotics. In addition to determining the eigenvalue asymptotics in the rough Riemannian manifold setting for weighted Laplace equations, we also wish to promote their achievements which may have further applications to modern problems.

**Related project(s):****5**Index theory on Lorentzian manifolds

On a smooth complete Riemannian spin manifold with smooth compact boundary, we demonstrate that Atiyah-Singer Dirac operator $\mathrm{D}_{\mathcal B}$ in $\mathrm{L}^{2}$ depends Riesz continuously on $\mathrm{L}^{\infty}$ perturbations of local boundary conditions ${\mathcal B}$. The Lipschitz bound for the map ${\mathcal B} \to {\mathrm{D}}_{\mathcal B}(1 + {\mathrm{D}}_{\mathcal B}^2)^{-\frac{1}{2}}$ depends on Lipschitz smoothness and ellipticity of ${\mathcal B}$ and bounds on Ricci curvature and its first derivatives as well as a lower bound on injectivity radius. More generally, we prove perturbation estimates for functional calculi of elliptic operators on manifolds with local boundary conditions.

Journal | Communications in Partial Differential Equations |

Publisher | Taylor and Francis |

Link to preprint version | |

Link to published version |

**Related project(s):****5**Index theory on Lorentzian manifolds

We consider rough metrics on smooth manifolds and corresponding Laplacians induced by such metrics. We demonstrate that globally continuous heat kernels exist and are H\"older continuous locally in space and time. This is done via local parabolic Harnack estimates for weak solutions of operators in divergence form with bounded measurable coefficients in weighted Sobolev spaces.

**Related project(s):****5**Index theory on Lorentzian manifolds

We prove that the Atiyah-Singer Dirac operator ${\mathrm D}_{\mathrm g}$ in ${\mathrm L}^2$ depends Riesz continuously on ${\mathrm L}^{\infty}$ perturbations of complete metrics ${\mathrm g}$ on a smooth manifold. The Lipschitz bound for the map ${\mathrm g} \to {\mathrm D}_{\mathrm g}(1 + {\mathrm D}_{\mathrm g}^2)^{-\frac{1}{2}}$ depends on bounds on Ricci curvature and its first derivatives as well as a lower bound on injectivity radius. Our proof uses harmonic analysis techniques related to Calder\'on's first commutator and the Kato square root problem. We also show perturbation results for more general functions of general Dirac-type operators on vector bundles.

Journal | Mathematische Annalen |

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Link to published version |

**Related project(s):****5**Index theory on Lorentzian manifolds