## Publications of SPP2026

On this site you find preprints and publications produced within the projects and with the support of the DFG priority programme „Geometry at Infinity“.

Let \(\mathcal{E}\) be an asymptotically Euclidean end in an otherwise arbitrary complete and connected Riemannian spin manifold \((M,g)\). We show that if \(\mathcal{E}\) has negative ADM-mass, then there exists a constant \(R > 0\), depending only on \(\mathcal{E}\), such that \(M\) must become incomplete or have a point of negative scalar curvature in the \(R\)-neighborhood around \(\mathcal{E}\) in \(M\). This gives a quantitative answer to Schoen and Yau's question on the positive mass theorem with arbitrary ends for spin manifolds. Similar results have recently been obtained by Lesourd, Unger and Yau without the spin condition in dimensions \(\leq 7\) assuming Schwarzschild asymptotics on the end \(\mathcal{E}\). We also derive explicit quantitative distance estimates in case the scalar curvature is uniformly positive in some region of the chosen end \(\mathcal{E}\). Here we obtain refined constants reminiscent of Gromov's metric inequalities with scalar curvature.

**Related project(s):****42**Spin obstructions to metrics of positive scalar curvature on nonspin manifolds**78**Duality and the coarse assembly map II

For every $g \gg 1$, we show the existence of a complete and smooth family of closed constant mean curvature surfaces $f_\varphi^g,$ $ \varphi \in [0, \tfrac{\pi}{2}],$ in the round $3$-sphere deforming the Lawson surface $\xi_{1, g}$ to a doubly covered geodesic 2-sphere with monotonically increasing Willmore energy. To do so we use an implicit function theorem argument in the parameter $s= \tfrac{1}{2(g+1)}$. This allows us to give an iterative algorithm to compute the power series expansion of the DPW potential and area of $f_\varphi^g$ at $s= 0$ explicitly. In particular, we obtain for large genus Lawson surfaces $\xi_{1,g}$, due to the real analytic dependence of its area and DPW potential on $s,$ a scheme to explicitly compute the coefficients of the power series in $s$ in terms of multilogarithms. Remarkably, the third order coefficient of the area expansion coincides numerically with $\tfrac{9}{4}\zeta(3),$ where $\zeta$ is the Riemann $\zeta$ function (while the first and second order term were shown to be $\log(2)$ and $0$ respectively in \cite{HHT}).

**Related project(s):****55**New hyperkähler spaces from the the self-duality equations**56**Large genus limit of energy minimizing compact minimal surfaces in the 3-sphere

For every integer $g \,\geq\, 2$ we show the existence of a compact Riemann surface $\Sigma$ of genus $g$ such that the rank two trivial holomorphic vector bundle ${\mathcal O}^{\oplus 2}_{\Sigma}$ admits holomorphic connections with $\text{SL}(2,{\mathbb R})$ monodromy and maximal Euler class. Such a monodromy representation is known to coincide with the Fuchsian uniformizing representation for some Riemann surface of genus $g$. This also answers a question of \cite{CDHL}. The construction carries over to all very stable and compatible real holomorphic structures over the topologically trivial rank two bundle on $\Sigma$, and gives the existence of holomorphic connections with Fuchsian monodromy in these cases as well.

**Related project(s):****55**New hyperkähler spaces from the the self-duality equations**56**Large genus limit of energy minimizing compact minimal surfaces in the 3-sphere

We study the holomorphic symplectic geometry of (the smooth locus of) the space of holomorphic sections of a twistor space with rotating circle action. The twistor space has a meromorphic connection constructed by Hitchin. We give an interpretation of Hitchin's meromorphic connection in the context of the Atiyah--Ward transform of the corresponding hyperholomorphic line bundle. It is shown that the residue of the meromorphic connection serves as a moment map for the induced circle action, and its critical points are studied. Particular emphasis is given to the example of Deligne--Hitchin moduli spaces.

**Related project(s):****55**New hyperkähler spaces from the the self-duality equations

We adapt the Faddeev-LeVerrier algorithm for the computation of characteristic polynomials to the computation of the Pfaffian of a skew-symmetric matrix. This yields a very simple, easy to implement and parallelize algorithm of computational cost O(n^__{__β+1}) where n is the size of the matrix and O(n^β) is the cost of multiplying n×n-matrices, β∈[2,2.37286). We compare its performance to that of other algorithms and show how it can be used to compute the Euler form of a Riemannian manifold using computer algebra.

Journal | Linear Algebra and its Applications |

Volume | 630 |

Pages | 39-55 |

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Link to published version |

**Related project(s):****37**Boundary value problems and index theory on Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds

We show that the metrisability of an oriented projective surface is equivalent to the existence of pseudo-holomorphic curves. A projective structure $\mathfrak{p}$ and a volume form $\sigma$ on an oriented surface $M$ equip the total space of a certain disk bundle $Z \to M$ with a pair $(J_{\mathfrak{p}},\mathfrak{J}_{\mathfrak{p},\sigma})$ of almost complex structures. A conformal structure on $M$ corresponds to a section of $Z\to M$ and $\mathfrak{p}$ is metrisable by the metric $g$ if and only if $[g] : M \to Z$ is a pseudo-holomorphic curve with respect to $J_{\mathfrak{p}}$ and $\mathfrak{J}_{\mathfrak{p},dA_g}$.

Journal | Mathematische Zeitschrift |

Publisher | Springer |

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**Related project(s):****26**Projective surfaces, Segre structures and the Hitchin component for PSL(n,R)

We construct a natural transformation between two versions of G-equivariant K-homology with coefficients in a G-C*-category for a countable discrete group G. Its domain is a coarse geometric K-homology and its target is the usual analytic K-homology. Following classical terminology, we call this transformation the Paschke transformation. We show that under certain finiteness assumptions on a G-space X, the Paschke transformation is an equivalence on X. As an application, we provide a direct comparison of the homotopy theoretic Davis–Lück assembly map with Kasparov’s analytic assembly map appearing in the Baum–Connes conjecture.

**Related project(s):****45**Macroscopic invariants of manifolds

In this paper, we establish the existence and uniqueness of Ricci flow that admits an embedded closed convex surface in $\mathbb{R}^3$ as metric initial condition. The main point is a family of smooth Ricci flows starting from smooth convex surfaces whose metrics converge uniformly to the metric of the initial surface in intrinsic sense.

**Related project(s):****75**Solutions to Ricci flow whose scalar curvature is bounded in L^p II

This article explores the interplay between the finite quotients of finitely generated residually finite groups and the concept of amenability.

We construct a finitely generated, residually finite, amenable group A and an uncountable family of finitely generated, residually finite non-amenable groups all of which are profinitely isomorphic to A. All of these groups are branch groups.

Moreover, picking up Grothendieck's problem, the group A embeds in these groups such that the inclusion induces an isomorphism of profinite completions.

In addition, we review the concept of uniform amenability, a strengthening of amenability introduced in the 70's, and we prove that uniform amenability indeed is detectable from the profinite completion.

**Related project(s):****58**Profinite perspectives on l2-cohomology

We use the Dirac operator technique to establish sharp distance estimates for compact spin manifolds under lower bounds on the scalar curvature in the interior and on the mean curvature of the boundary. In the situations we consider, we thereby give refined answers to questions on metric inequalities recently proposed by Gromov. This includes optimal estimates for Riemannian bands and for the long neck problem. In the case of bands over manifolds of non-vanishing \(\widehat{\mathrm{A}}\)-genus, we establish a rigidity result stating that any band attaining the predicted upper bound is isometric to a particular warped product over some spin manifold admitting a parallel spinor. Furthermore, we establish scalar- and mean curvature extremality results for certain log-concave warped products. The latter includes annuli in all simply-connected space forms. On a technical level, our proofs are based on new spectral estimates for the Dirac operator augmented by a Lipschitz potential together with local boundary conditions.

**Related project(s):****42**Spin obstructions to metrics of positive scalar curvature on nonspin manifolds**78**Duality and the coarse assembly map II

For a mean curvature flow of complete graphical hypersurfaces *M**_t*=graph *u*(⋅,*t*) defined over domains Ω*_t*, the enveloping cylinder is ∂Ω*_t*×R. We prove the smooth convergence of *M**_t* − *h **e_*{*n*+1} to the enveloping cylinder under certain circumstances. Moreover, we give examples demonstrating that there is no uniform curvature bound in terms of the inital curvature and the geometry of Ω_*t*. Furthermore, we provide an example where the hypersurface increasingly oscillates towards infinity in both space and time. It has unbounded curvature at all times and is not smoothly asymptotic to the enveloping cylinder. We also prove a relation between the initial spatial asymptotics at the boundary and the temporal asymptotics of how the surface vanishes to infinity for certain rates in the case Ω*_t* are balls.

**Related project(s):****29**Curvature flows without singularities

We consider the evolution of hypersurfaces in R^{*n*+1} with normal velocity given by a positive power of the mean curvature. The hypersurfaces under consideration are assumed to be strictly mean convex (positive mean curvature), complete, and given as the graph of a function. Long-time existence of the *H**^α*-flow is established by means of approximation by bounded problems.

**Related project(s):****29**Curvature flows without singularities

By a symmetric double graph we mean a hypersurface which is mirror-symmetric and the two symmetric parts are graphs over the hyperplane of symmetry. We prove that there is a weak solution of mean curvature flow that preserves these properties and singularities only occur on the hyperplane of symmetry. The result can be used to construct smooth solutions to the free Neumann boundary problem on a supporting hyperplane with singular boundary. For the construction we introduce and investigate a notion named "vanity" and which is similar to convexity. Moreover, we rely on Sáez' and Schnürer's "mean curvature flow without singularities" to approximate weak solutions with smooth graphical solutions in one dimension higher.

**Related project(s):****29**Curvature flows without singularities

We introduce Riemannian metrics of positive scalar curvature on manifolds with Baas-Sullivan singularities, prove a corresponding homology invariance principle and discuss admissible products.

Using this theory we construct positive scalar curvature metrics on closed smooth manifolds of dimensions at least five which have odd order abelian fundamental groups, are non-spin and atoral. This solves the Gromov-Lawson-Rosenberg conjecture for a new class of manifolds with finite fundamental groups.

Journal | Geometry & Topology |

Publisher | MSP |

Volume | 25 (2021) |

Pages | 497-546 |

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Link to published version |

**Related project(s):****15**Spaces and Moduli Spaces of Riemannian Metrics with Curvature Bounds on compact and non-compact Manifolds

The unit conjecture, commonly attributed to Kaplansky, predicts that if *\(K\)* is a field and \(G\) is a torsion-free group then the only units of the group ring \(K[G]\) are the trivial units, that is, the non-zero scalar multiples of group elements. We give a concrete counterexample to this conjecture; the group is virtually abelian and the field is order two.

**Related project(s):****48**Profinite and RFRS groups

For a countable group G we construct a small, idempotent complete, symmetric monoidal, stable ∞-category KK^G_sep whose homotopy category recovers the triangulated equivariant Kasparov category of separable G-C*-algebras, and exhibit its universal property. Likewise, we consider an associated presentably symmetric monoidal, stable ∞-category KK^G which receives a symmetric monoidal functor kk^G from possibly non-separable G-C*-algebras and discuss its universal property. In addition to the symmetric monoidal structures, we construct various change-of-group functors relating these KK-categories for varying G. We use this to define and establish key properties of a (spectrum valued) equivariant, locally finite K-homology theory on proper and locally compact G-topological spaces, allowing for coefficients in arbitrary G-C*-algebras. Finally, we extend the functor kk^G from G-C*-algebras to G-C*-categories. These constructions are key in a companion paper about a form of equivariant Paschke duality and assembly maps.

**Related project(s):****45**Macroscopic invariants of manifolds

We prove that any length metric space homeomorphic to a surface may be decomposed into non-overlapping convex triangles of arbitrarily small diameter. This generalizes a previous result of Alexandrov--Zalgaller for surfaces of bounded curvature.

**Related project(s):****24**Minimal surfaces in metric spaces

Based on Morse theory for the energy functional on path spaces we develop a deformation theory for mapping spaces of spheres into orthogonal groups. This is used to show that these mapping spaces are weakly homotopy equivalent, in a stable range, to mapping spaces associated to orthogonal Clifford representations. Given an oriented Euclidean bundle $V \to X$ of rank divisible by four over a finite complex $X$ we derive a stable decomposition result for vector bundles over the sphere bundle $\mathbb{S}( \mathbb{R} \oplus V)$ in terms of vector bundles and Clifford module bundles over $X$. After passing to topological K-theory these results imply classical Bott-Thom isomorphism theorems.

Journal | São Paulo Journal of Mathematical Sciences (to appear) |

Link to preprint version |

**Related project(s):****15**Spaces and Moduli Spaces of Riemannian Metrics with Curvature Bounds on compact and non-compact Manifolds**52**Spaces and Moduli Spaces of Riemannian Metrics with Curvature Bounds on compact and non-compact Manifolds II

We investigate the class of geodesic metric discs satisfying a uniform quadratic isoperimetric inequality and uniform bounds on the length of the boundary circle. We show that the closure of this class as a subset of Gromov-Hausdorff space is intimately related to the class of geodesic metric disc retracts satisfying comparable bounds. This kind of discs naturally come up in the context of the solution of Plateau's problem in metric spaces by Lytchak and Wenger as generalizations of minimal surfaces.

Journal | Geom. Dedicata |

Volume | 210 |

Pages | 151-164 |

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**Related project(s):****24**Minimal surfaces in metric spaces

We introduce a new technique to the study and identification of submanifolds of simply-connected symmetric spaces of compact type based upon an approach computing k-positive Ricci curvature of the ambient manifolds and using this information in order to determine how highly connected the embeddings are. This provides codimension ranges in which the Cartan type of submanifolds satisfying certain conditions which generalize being totally geodesic necessarily equals the one of the ambient manifold. Using results by Guijarro-Wilhelm our approach partly generalizes recent work by Berndt-Olmos on the index conjecture.

**Related project(s):****79**Alexandrov geometry in the light of symmetry and topology