## Publications of SPP2026

On this site you find preprints and publications produced within the projects and with the support of the DFG priority programme „Geometry at Infinity“.

We show that the homogeneous and the 2-lobe Delaunay tori in the 3-sphere provide the only isothermic constrained Willmore tori in 3-space with Willmore energy below 8π. In particular, every constrained Willmore torus with Willmore energy below 8π and non-rectangular conformal class is non-degenerated.

Pages | 19 |

Link to preprint version |

**Related project(s):****16**Minimizer of the Willmore energy with prescribed rectangular conformal class

We show that the of 2-lobed Delaunay tori are stable as constrained Willmore surfaces in the 3-sphere.

Pages | 14 |

Link to preprint version |

**Related project(s):****16**Minimizer of the Willmore energy with prescribed rectangular conformal class

In a previous work, a six-parameter family of highly connected 7-manifolds which admit an $\mathrm{SO}(3)$-invariant metric of non-negative sectional curvature was constructed. Each member of this family is the total space of a Seifert fibration with generic fibre $\mathbb S^3$ and, in particular, has the cohomology of an $\mathbb S^3$-bundle over $\mathbb S^4$. In the present article, the linking form of these manifolds is computed and used to demonstrate that the family contains infinitely many manifolds which are not even homotopy equivalent to an $\mathbb S^3$-bundle over $\mathbb S^4$, the first time that any such spaces have been shown to admit non-negative sectional curvature.

**Related project(s):****4**Secondary invariants for foliations**11**Topological and equivariant rigidity in the presence of lower curvature bounds

In this short note we observe the existence of free, isometric actions of finite cyclic groups on a family of 2-connected 7-manifolds with non-negative sectional curvature. This yields many new examples including fake, and possible exotic, lens spaces.

**Related project(s):****4**Secondary invariants for foliations**11**Topological and equivariant rigidity in the presence of lower curvature bounds

We explain how the construction of the real numbers using quasimorphisms can be transformed into a general method to construct the completion of a field with respect to an absolute value.

Journal | P-Adic Numbers Ultrametric Anal. Appl. |

Volume | 11 |

Pages | 335 - 337 |

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Link to published version |

**Related project(s):****18**Analytic L2-invariants of non-positively curved spaces

We define a variant of Benjamini-Schramm convergence for finite simplicial complexes with the action of a fixed finite group G which leads to the notion of random rooted simplicial G-complexes. For every random rooted simplicial G-complex we define a corresponding *ℓ*2-homology and the *ℓ*2-multiplicity of an irreducible representation of G in the homology. The *ℓ*2-multiplicities generalize the *ℓ*2-Betti numbers and we show that they are continuous on the space of sofic random rooted simplicial G-complexes. In addition, we study induction of random rooted complexes and discuss the effect on *ℓ*2-multiplicities.

Pages | 20 |

Link to preprint version |

**Related project(s):****18**Analytic L2-invariants of non-positively curved spaces

Several formulas for computing coarse indices of twisted Dirac type operators are introduced. One type of such formulas is by composition product in \(E\)-theory. The other type is by module multiplications in *\(K\)*-theory, which also yields an index theoretic interpretation of the duality between Roe algebra and stable Higson corona.

Journal | Journal of Topology and Analysis |

Publisher | World Scientific Publishing |

Volume | 11(4) |

Pages | 823-873 |

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Link to published version |

**Related project(s):****10**Duality and the coarse assembly map

We introduce coordinates on the space of Lagrangian decorated and framed representations of the fundamental group of a surface with punctures into the symplectic group Sp(2n,R). These coordinates provide a non-commutative generalization of the parametrizations of the spaces of representations into SL(2,R) given by Thurston, Penner, and Fock-Goncharov. With these coordinates, the space of framed symplectic representations provides a geometric realization of the non-commutative cluster algebras introduced by Berenstein-Retakh. The locus of positive coordinates maps to the space of decorated maximal representations. We use this to determine the homotopy type of the space of decorated maximal representations, and its homeomorphism type when n=2

**Related project(s):****28**Rigidity, deformations and limits of maximal representations

We show that, for each $n\geqslant 1$, there exist infinitely many spin and non-spin diffeomorphism types of closed, smooth, simply-connected $(n+4)$-manifolds with a smooth, effective action of a torus $T^{n+2}$ and a metric of positive Ricci curvature invariant under a $T^{n}$-subgroup of $T^{n+2}$. As an application, we show that every closed, smooth, simply-connected $5$- and $6$-manifold admitting a smooth, effective torus action of cohomogeneity two supports metrics with positive Ricci curvature invariant under a circle or $T^2$-action, respectively.

Journal | Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. |

Volume | In press. |

Link to preprint version |

**Related project(s):****11**Topological and equivariant rigidity in the presence of lower curvature bounds

We obtain a Central Limit Theorem for closed Riemannian manifolds, clarifying along the way the geometric meaning of some of the hypotheses in Bhattacharya and Lin's Omnibus Central Limit Theorem for Fréchet means. We obtain our CLT assuming certain stability hypothesis for the cut locus, which always holds when the manifold is compact but may not be satisfied in the non-compact case.

**Related project(s):****11**Topological and equivariant rigidity in the presence of lower curvature bounds**15**Spaces and Moduli Spaces of Riemannian Metrics with Curvature Bounds on compact and non-compact Manifolds

Abstract: For an immersed Lagrangian submanifold, let \check{A} be the Lagrangian trace-free second fundamental form. In this note we consider the equation \nabla^*T=0 on Lagrangian surfaces immersed in \mathbb{C}^2, where T=-2\nabla^*(\check{A}\lrcornerω), and we prove a gap theorem for the Whitney sphere as a solution to this equation.

**Related project(s):****22**Willmore functional and Lagrangian surfaces

In this paper we introduce a Guan-Li type volume preserving mean curvature flow for free boundary hypersurfaces in a ball. We give a concept of star-shaped free boundary hypersurfaces in a ball and show that the Guan-Li type mean curvature flow has long time existence and converges to a free boundary spherical cap, provided the initial data is star-shaped.

**Related project(s):****22**Willmore functional and Lagrangian surfaces

In this paper we prove that any immersed stable capillary hypersurfaces in a ball in space forms are totally umbilical. This solves completely a long-standing open problem. In the proof one of crucial ingredients is a new Minkowski type formula. We also prove a Heintze-Karcher-Ros type inequality for hypersurfaces in a ball, which, together with the new Minkowski formula, yields a new proof of Alexandrov's Theorem for embedded CMC hypersurfaces in a ball with free boundary.

Journal | Math. Ann. |

Volume | 374 |

Pages | 1845--1882 |

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**Related project(s):****22**Willmore functional and Lagrangian surfaces

In this note, we first introduce a boundary problem for Lagrangian submanifolds, analogous to the free boundary hypersurfaces and capillary hypersurfaces. Then we present some interesting minimal Lagrangian submanifolds examples satisfying this boundary condition and we prove a Lagrangian version of Nitsche (or Hopf) type theorem. Some problems are proposed at the end of this note.

**Related project(s):****22**Willmore functional and Lagrangian surfaces

We study immersed surfaces in R3 which are critical points of the Willmore functional under boundary constraints. The two cases considered are when the surface meets a plane orthogonally along the boundary, and when the boundary is contained in a line. In both cases we derive weak forms of the resulting free boundary conditions and prove regularity by reflection.

**Related project(s):****22**Willmore functional and Lagrangian surfaces

For the Willmore flow of spheres in R^n with small energy, we prove stability estimates for the barycenter, the quadratic moment, and in case n=3 also for the enclosed volume and averaged mean curvature. As applications, we give a new proof for a quasi-rigidity estimate due to De Lellis and Müller, also for an inequality by Röger and Schätzle for the isoperimetric deficit.

**Related project(s):****22**Willmore functional and Lagrangian surfaces

Let M be a compact Riemannian manifold which does not admit any immersed surface which is totally geodesic. We prove that then any completely immersed surface in M has area bounded in terms of the L^2 norm of the second fundamental form.

**Related project(s):****22**Willmore functional and Lagrangian surfaces

A classical problem in general relativity is the Cauchy problem for the linearised Einstein equation (the initial value problem for gravitational waves) on a globally hyperbolic vacuum spacetime. A well-known result is that it is uniquely solvable up to gauge solutions, given initial data on a spacelike Cauchy hypersurface. The solution map is an isomorphism between initial data (modulo gauge producing initial data) and solutions (modulo gauge solutions). In the first part of this work, we show that the solution map is actually an isomorphism of locally convex topological vector spaces. This implies that the equivalence class of solutions depends continuously on the equivalence class of initial data. We may therefore conclude well-posedness of the Cauchy problem. In the second part, we show that the linearised constraint equations can always be solved on a closed manifold with vanishing scalar curvature. This generalises the classical notion of TT-tensors on flat space used to produce models of gravitational waves. All our results are proven for smooth and distributional initial data of arbitrary real Sobolev regularity.

Journal | Annales Henri Poincaré |

Publisher | Springer International Publishing |

Volume | 20 |

Pages | 3849–3888 |

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Link to published version |

**Related project(s):****21**Stability and instability of Einstein manifolds with prescribed asymptotic geometry

We prove that any compact Cauchy horizon with constant non-zero surface gravity in a smooth vacuum spacetime is a Killing horizon. The novelty here is that the Killing vector field is shown to exist on both sides of the horizon. This generalises classical results by Moncrief and Isenberg, by dropping the assumption that the metric is analytic. In previous work by Rácz and the author, the Killing vector field was constructed on the globally hyperbolic side of the horizon. In this paper, we prove a new unique continuation theorem for wave equations through smooth compact lightlike (characteristic) hypersurfaces which allows us to extend the Killing vector field beyond the horizon. The main ingredient in the proof of this theorem is a novel Carleman type estimate. Using a well-known construction, our result applies in particular to smooth stationary asymptotically flat vacuum black hole spacetimes with event horizons with constant non-zero surface gravity. As a special case, we therefore recover Hawking's local rigidity theorem for such black holes, which was recently proven by Alexakis-Ionescu-Klainerman using a different Carleman type estimate.

**Related project(s):****21**Stability and instability of Einstein manifolds with prescribed asymptotic geometry

An action of a compact Lie group is called equivariantly formal, if the Leray--Serre spectral sequence of its Borel fibration degenerates at the E_2-term. This term is as prominent as it is restrictive.

In this article, also motivated by the lack of junction between the notion of equivariant formality and the concept of formality of spaces (surging from rational homotopy theory) we suggest two new variations of equivariant formality: "MOD-formal actions" and "actions of formal core".

We investigate and characterize these new terms in many different ways involving various tools from rational homotopy theory, Hirsch--Brown models, A∞-algebras, etc., and, in particular, we provide different applications ranging from actions on symplectic manifolds and rationally elliptic spaces to manifolds of non-negative sectional curvature.

A major motivation for the new definitions was that an almost free action of a torus Tn↷X possessing any of the two new properties satisfies the toral rank conjecture, i.e. dimH∗(X;Q)≥2n. This generalizes and proves the toral rank conjecture for actions with formal orbit spaces.

**Related project(s):****15**Spaces and Moduli Spaces of Riemannian Metrics with Curvature Bounds on compact and non-compact Manifolds