## Publications of SPP2026

On this site you find preprints and publications produced within the projects and with the support of the DFG priority programme „Geometry at Infinity“.

We study planar graphs with large negative curvature outside of a finite set and the spectral theory of Schrödinger operators on these graphs. We obtain estimates on the first and second order term of the eigenvalue asymptotics. Moreover, we prove a unique continuation result for eigenfunctions and decay properties of general eigenfunctions. The proofs rely on a detailed analysis of the geometry which employs a Copy-and-Paste procedure based on the Gauß-Bonnet theorem.

**Related project(s):****59**Laplacians, metrics and boundaries of simplicial complexes and Dirichlet spaces

In this article we prove upper bounds for the k-th Laplace eigenvalues below the essential spectrum for strictly negatively curved Cartan–Hadamard manifolds. Our bound is given in terms of *k^*2 and specific geometric data of the manifold. This applies also to the particular case of non‐compact manifolds whose sectional curvature tends to minus infinity, where no essential spectrum is present due to a theorem of Donnelly/Li. The result stands in clear contrast to Laplacians on graphs where such a bound fails to be true in general.

Journal | Mathematische Nachrichten |

Publisher | Wiley |

Volume | 294 |

Pages | 1134-1139 |

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**Related project(s):****59**Laplacians, metrics and boundaries of simplicial complexes and Dirichlet spaces

We construct secondary cup and cap products on coarse (co-)homology theories from given cross and slant products. They are defined for coarse spaces relative to weak generalized controlled deformation retracts.

On ordinary coarse cohomology, our secondary cup product agrees with a secondary product defined by Roe. For coarsifications of topological coarse (co-)homology theories, our secondary cup and cap products correspond to the primary cup and cap products on Higson dominated coronas via transgression maps. And in the case of coarse $\mathrm{K}$-theory and -homology, the secondary products correspond to canonical primary products between the $\mathrm{K}$-theories of the stable Higson corona and the Roe algebra under assembly and co-assembly.

Journal | Research in the Mathematical Sciences |

Volume | 8, Article number: 36 |

Pages | 64p |

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**Related project(s):****10**Duality and the coarse assembly map**78**Duality and the coarse assembly map II

We construct a slant product on the analytic structure group of Higson and Roe and the K-theory of the stable Higson corona of Emerson and Meyer, which is the domain of the co-assembly map. In fact, we obtain such products simultaneously on the entire Higson-Roe sequence. The existence of these products implies injectivity results for external product maps on each term of the Higson-Roe sequence. Our results apply in particular to taking products with aspherical manifolds whose fundamental groups admit coarse embeddings into Hilbert space. To conceptualize the general class of manifolds where this method applies, we introduce the notion of Higson-essentialness. A complete spin-c manifold is Higson-essential if its fundamental class is detected by the stable Higson corona via the co-assembly map. We prove that coarsely hypereuclidean manifolds are Higson-essential. Finally, we draw conclusions for positive scalar curvature metrics on product spaces, in particular on non-compact manifolds. We also construct suitable equivariant versions of these slant products and discuss related problems of exactness and amenability of the stable Higson corona.

Journal | Annales de l'Institut Fourier |

Volume | 71 (2021) no. 3 |

Pages | 913-1021 |

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**Related project(s):****10**Duality and the coarse assembly map

This paper is a systematic approach to the construction of coronas (i.e. Higson dominated boundaries at infinity) of combable spaces. We introduce three additional properties for combings: properness, coherence and expandingness. Properness is the condition under which our construction of the corona works. Under the assumption of coherence and expandingness, attaching our corona to a Rips complex construction yields a contractible \(\sigma\)-compact space in which the corona sits as a \(\mathbb{Z}\)-set. This results in bijectivity of transgression maps, injectivity of the coarse assembly map and surjectivity of the coarse co-assembly map. For groups we get an estimate on the cohomological dimension of the corona in terms of the asymptotic dimension. Furthermore, if the group admits a finite model for its classifying space \(BG\), then our constructions yield a \(\mathbb{Z}\)-structure for the group.

Journal | Journal of Topology and Analysis |

Volume | online ready |

Pages | 83p |

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**Related project(s):****10**Duality and the coarse assembly map

In this paper we discuss Perelman's Lambda-functional, Perelman's Ricci shrinker entropy as well as the Ricci expander entropy on a class of manifolds with isolated conical singularities. On such manifolds, a singular Ricci de Turck flow preserving the isolated conical singularities exists by our previous work. We prove that the entropies are monotone along the singular Ricci de Turck flow. We employ these entropies to show that in the singular setting, Ricci solitons are gradient and that steady or expanding Ricci solitons are Einstein.

Journal | Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. |

Volume | 374 |

Pages | 2873-2908 |

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**Related project(s):****21**Stability and instability of Einstein manifolds with prescribed asymptotic geometry**23**Spectral geometry, index theory and geometric flows on singular spaces

We consider the long-time behaviour of the mean curvature flow of spacelike hypersurfaces in the Lorentzian product manifold M×R, where M is asymptotically flat. If the initial hypersurface F⊂M×R is uniformly spacelike and asymptotic to M×{s} for some s∈R at infinity, we show that the mean curvature flow starting at F0 exists for all times and converges uniformly to M×{s} as t→∞.

Journal | J. Geom. Anal. |

Volume | 31 |

Pages | 5451–5479 |

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**Related project(s):****23**Spectral geometry, index theory and geometric flows on singular spaces

We consider the heat equation associated to Schrödinger operators acting on vector bundles on asymptotically locally Euclidean (ALE) manifolds. Novel *L**p*−*L**q* decay estimates are established, allowing the Schrödinger operator to have a non-trivial *L*2-kernel. We also prove new decay estimates for spatial derivatives of arbitrary order, in a general geometric setting. Our main motivation is the application to stability of non-linear geometric equations, primarily Ricci flow, which will be presented in a companion paper. The arguments in this paper use that many geometric Schrödinger operators can be written as the square of Dirac type operators. By a remarkable result of Wang, this is even true for the Lichnerowicz Laplacian, under the assumption of a parallel spinor. Our analysis is based on a novel combination of the Fredholm theory for Dirac type operators on ALE manifolds and recent advances in the study of the heat kernel on non-compact manifolds.

Journal | Int. Math Res. Not. |

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**Related project(s):****21**Stability and instability of Einstein manifolds with prescribed asymptotic geometry

We compute the spectra of the Laplace-Beltrami operator, the connection Laplacian on 1-forms and the Einstein operator on symmetric 2-tensors on the sine-cone over a positive Einstein manifold $(M,g)$. We conclude under which conditions on $(M,g)$, the sine-cone is dynamically stable under the singular Ricci-de Turck flow and rigid as a singular Einstein manifold

Journal | J. Funct. Anal. |

Volume | 281 |

Pages | 109115 |

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**Related project(s):****21**Stability and instability of Einstein manifolds with prescribed asymptotic geometry**64**Spectral geometry, index theory and geometric flows on singular spaces II

We obtain new lower bounds for the first non-zero eigenvalue of the scalar

sub-Laplacian for 3-Sasaki metrics, improving Lichnerowicz-Obata type

estimates by Ivanov et al. The limiting eigenspace is fully decribed in

terms of the automorphism algebra. Our results can be thought of as an

analogue of the Lichnerowicz-Matsushima estimate for Kähler-Einstein

metrics. In dimension 7, if the automorphism algebra is non-vanishing,

we also compute the second eigenvalue for the sub-Laplacian and construct

explicit eigenfunctions. In addition, for all metrics in the canonical

variation of the 3-Sasaki metric we give a lower bound for the spectrum of the Riemannian Laplace operator, depending only on scalar curvature and dimension.

We also strengthen a result pertaining to the growth rate of harmonic

functions, due to Conlon, Hein and Sun, in the case of hyperkähler

cones. In this setup we also describe the space of holomorphic functions.

**Related project(s):****74**Rigidity, stability and deformations in nearly parallel G2-geometry

We initiate a systematic study of the deformation theory of the second Einstein

metric \(g_{1/\sqrt{5}}\) respectively the proper nearly G2 structure \(\phi_{1/\sqrt{5}}\) of a 3-Sasaki manifold \((M^7,g)\). We show that infinitesimal Einstein deformations for \(g_{1/\sqrt{5}}\) coincide with infinitesimal \(G_2\) deformations for \(\phi_{1/\sqrt{5}}\). The latter are showed to be parametrised by eigenfunctions of the basic Laplacian of g, with eigenvalue twice the Einstein constant of the base 4-dimensional orbifold, via an explicit differential operator. In terms of this parametrisation we determine those infinitesimal \(G_2\) deformations which are unobstructed to second order.

**Related project(s):****74**Rigidity, stability and deformations in nearly parallel G2-geometry

We describe the second order obstruction to deformation for nearly G_2 structures on compact manifolds. Building on work of B. Alexandrov and U. Semmelmann this allows proving rigidity under deformation for the proper nearly G_2 structure on the Aloff-Wallach space N(1,1).

Journal | J. London Math. Soc. (2) 104 (2021) 1795--1811 |

Link to preprint version |

**Related project(s):****74**Rigidity, stability and deformations in nearly parallel G2-geometry

We present the Laplace operator associated to a hyperbolic surface \(\Gamma\backslash\mathbb{H}\) and a unitary representation of the fundamental group \(\Gamma\), extending the previous definition for hyperbolic surfaces of finite area to those of infinite area. We show that the resolvent of this operator admits a meromorphic continuation to all of \(\mathbb{C}\) by constructing a parametrix for the Laplacian, following the approach by Guillopé and Zworski. We use the construction to provide an optimal upper bound for the counting function of the poles of the continued resolvent.

**Related project(s):****70**Spectral theory with non-unitary twists

In 2015, Mantoulidis and Schoen constructed 3-dimensional asymptotically Euclidean manifolds with non-negative scalar curvature whose ADM mass can be made arbitrarily close to the optimal value of the Riemannian Penrose Inequality, while the intrinsic geometry of the outermost minimal surface can be ``far away'' from being round. The resulting manifolds, called *extensions*, are geometrically not ``close'' to a spatial Schwarzschild manifold. This suggests instability of the Riemannian Penrose Inequality. Their construction was later adapted to n+1 dimensions by Cabrera Pacheco and Miao, suggesting instability of the higher dimensional Riemannian Penrose Inequality. In recent papers by Alaee, Cabrera Pacheco, and Cederbaum and by Cabrera Pacheco, Cederbaum, and McCormick, a similar construction was performed for asymptotically Euclidean, electrically charged initial data sets and for asymptotically hyperbolic Riemannian manifolds, respectively, obtaining 3-dimensional extensions that suggest instability of the Riemannian Penrose Inequality with electric charge and of the conjectured asymptotically hyperbolic Riemannian Penrose Inequality in 3 dimensions. This paper combines and generalizes all the aforementioned results by constructing suitable asymptotically hyperbolic or asymptotically Euclidean extensions with electric charge in n+1 dimensions for n greater or equal to 2.

Besides suggesting instability of a naturally conjecturally generalized Riemannian Penrose Inequality, the constructed extensions give insights into an ad hoc generalized notion of Bartnik mass, similar to the Bartnik mass estimate for minimal surfaces proven by Mantoulidis and Schoen via their extensions, and unifying the Bartnik mass estimates in the various scenarios mentioned above.

**Related project(s):****40**Construction of Riemannian manifolds with scalar curvature constraints and applications to general relativity**41**Geometrically defined asymptotic coordinates in general relativity

We use the theory of Gaiotto, Moore and Neitzke to construct a set of Darboux coordinates on the moduli space \(\mathcal{M}\) of weakly parabolic \(SL(2,\mathbb{C})\)-Higgs bundles. For generic Higgs bundles\((\mathcal{E},R\Phi)\) with \(R\gg 0\) the coordinates are shown to be dominated by a leading term that is given by the coordinates for a corresponding simpler space of limiting configurations and we prove that the deviation from the limiting term is given by a remainder that is exponentially suppressed in \(R\).

We then use this result to solve an associated Riemann-Hilbert problem and construct a twistorial hyperkähler metric \(g_{\text{twist}}\) on \(\mathcal{M}\). Comparing this metric to the simpler semiflat metric \(g_{\text{sf}}\), we show that their difference is \(g_{\text{twist}}-g_{\text{sf}}=O\left(e^{-\mu R}\right)\), where \(\mu\) is a minimal period of the determinant of the Higgs field.

**Related project(s):****77**Asymptotic geometry of the Higgs bundle moduli space II

We prove the existence of a pair $(\Sigma ,\, \Gamma)$, where $\Sigma$ is a compact Riemann surface with $\text{genus}(\Sigma)\, \geq\, 2$, and $\Gamma\, \subset\, {\rm SL}(2, \C)$ is a cocompact lattice, such that there is a generically injective holomorphic map $\Sigma \, \longrightarrow\, {\rm SL}(2, \C)/\Gamma$. This gives an affirmative answer to a question raised by Huckleberry and Winkelmann \cite{HW} and by Ghys \cite{Gh}.

**Related project(s):****55**New hyperkähler spaces from the the self-duality equations**56**Large genus limit of energy minimizing compact minimal surfaces in the 3-sphere

Moduli spaces of stable parabolic bundles of parabolic degree \(0\) over the Riemann sphere are stratified according to the Harder-Narasimhan filtration of underlying vector bundles. Over a Zariski open subset \(\mathscr{N}_{0}\) of the open stratum depending explicitly on a choice of parabolic weights, a real-valued function \(\mathscr{S}\) is defined as the regularized critical value of the non-compact Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten action functional. The definition of \(\mathscr{S}\) depends on a suitable notion of parabolic bundle 'uniformization map' following from the Mehta-Seshadri and Birkhoff-Grothendieck theorems. It is shown that \(-\mathscr{S}\) is a primitive for a (1,0)-form \(\vartheta\) on \(\mathscr{N}_{0}\) associated with the uniformization data of each intrinsic irreducible unitary logarithmic connection. Moreover, it is proved that \(-\mathscr{S}\) is a Kähler potential for \((\Omega-\Omega_{\mathrm{T}})|_{\mathscr{N}_{0}}\), where \(\Omega\) is the Narasimhan-Atiyah-Bott Kähler form in \(\mathscr{N}\) and \(\Omega_{\mathrm{T}}\) is a certain linear combination of tautological \((1,1)\)-forms associated with the marked points. These results provide an explicit relation between the cohomology class \([\Omega]\) and tautological classes, which holds globally over certain open chambers of parabolic weights where \(\mathscr{N}_{0} = \mathscr{N}\).

Journal | Commun. Math. Phys. |

Publisher | Springer |

Volume | 387, no. 2 |

Pages | 649–680 |

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**Related project(s):****32**Asymptotic geometry of the Higgs bundle moduli space**69**Wall-crossing and hyperkähler geometry of moduli spaces

We survey several mathematical developments in the holonomy approach to gauge theory. A cornerstone of such approach is the introduction of group structures on spaces of based loops on a smooth manifold, relying on certain homotopy equivalence relations --- such as the so-called thin homotopy --- and the resulting interpretation of gauge fields as group homomorphisms to a Lie group *G* satisfying a suitable smoothness condition, encoding the holonomy of a gauge orbit of smooth connections on a principal *G*-bundle. We also prove several structural results on thin homotopy, and in particular we clarify the difference between thin equivalence and retrace equivalence for piecewise-smooth based loops on a smooth manifold, which are often used interchangeably in the physics literature. We conclude by listing a set of questions on topological and functional analytic aspects of groups of based loops, which we consider to be fundamental to establish a rigorous differential geometric foundation of the holonomy formulation of gauge theory.

Journal | Contemp. Math. |

Publisher | Amer. Math. Soc. |

Volume | 775 |

Pages | 233–253 |

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**Related project(s):****32**Asymptotic geometry of the Higgs bundle moduli space**69**Wall-crossing and hyperkähler geometry of moduli spaces