## Publications of SPP2026

On this site you find preprints and publications produced within the projects and with the support of the DFG priority programme „Geometry at Infinity“.

We prove a positive mass theorem for spin initial data sets \((M,g,k)\) that contain an asymptotically flat end and a shield of dominant energy (a subset of M on which the dominant energy scalar \(μ−|J|\) has a positive lower bound). In a similar vein, we show that for an asymptotically flat end \(\mathcal{E}\) that violates the positive mass theorem (i.e. \(\mathrm{E}<|\mathrm{P}|\)), there exists a constant \(R > 0\), depending only on \(\mathcal{E}\), such that any initial data set containing \(\mathcal{E}\) must violate the hypotheses of Witten's proof of the positive mass theorem in an \(R\)-neighborhood of \(\mathcal{E}\). This implies the positive mass theorem for spin initial data sets with arbitrary ends, and we also prove a rigidity statement. Our proofs are based on a modification of Witten's approach to the positive mass theorem involving an additional independent timelike direction in the spinor bundle.

**Related project(s):****42**Spin obstructions to metrics of positive scalar curvature on nonspin manifolds**78**Duality and the coarse assembly map II

Let \(M\) be an orientable connected \(n\)-dimensional manifold with \(n\in\{6,7\}\) and let \(Y\subset M\) be a two-sided closed connected incompressible hypersurface which does not admit a metric of positive scalar curvature (abbreviated by psc). Moreover, suppose that the universal covers of \(M\) and \(Y\) are either both spin or both non-spin. Using Gromov's \(\mu\)-bubbles, we show that \(M\) does not admit a complete metric of psc. We provide an example showing that the spin/non-spin hypothesis cannot be dropped from the statement of this result. This answers, up to dimension \(7\), a question by Gromov for a large class of cases. Furthermore, we prove a related result for submanifolds of codimension two. We deduce as special cases that, if \(Y\) does not admit a metric of psc and \(\dim(Y) \neq 4\), then \(M := Y\times\mathbb{R}\) does not carry a complete metric of psc and \(N := Y \times \mathbb{R}^2\) does not carry a complete metric of uniformly psc provided that \(\dim(M) \leq 7\) and \(\dim(N) \leq 7\), respectively. This solves, up to dimension \(7\), a conjecture due to Rosenberg and Stolz in the case of orientable manifolds.

Journal | Journal of Topology |

Volume | 16.3 |

Pages | 855-876 |

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**Related project(s):****42**Spin obstructions to metrics of positive scalar curvature on nonspin manifolds**78**Duality and the coarse assembly map II

In this survey, we give an overview of recent applications of Callias operators to the geometry of scalar curvature. A Callias operator is an operator of the form \(\mathcal{B}_\psi = \mathcal{D} + \mathcal{G}_\psi\), where *\(\mathcal{D}\)* is a Dirac operator and \(\mathcal{G}_\psi\) is an order zero term depending on a scalar-valued function \(\psi\). The zero order term modifies the Schrödinger–Lichnerowicz formula by a differential expression in the function \(\psi\) that can be related to distance estimates. This fact allows to use the Dirac method to derive sharp quantitative estimates in the presence of lower scalar curvature bounds in the spirit of metric inequalities with scalar curvature as proposed by Gromov.

Book | M Gromov, B. Lawson (eds): Perspectives in Scalar Curvature |

Volume | 1 |

Pages | 515-542 |

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**Related project(s):****42**Spin obstructions to metrics of positive scalar curvature on nonspin manifolds**78**Duality and the coarse assembly map II

We show scalar-mean curvature rigidity of warped products of round spheres of dimension at least 2 over compact intervals equipped with strictly log-concave warping functions. This generalizes earlier results of Cecchini-Zeidler to all dimensions. Moreover, we show scalar curvature rigidity of round spheres of dimension at least $3$ minus two antipodal points, thus resolving a problem in Gromov's ``Four Lectures'' in all dimensions. Our arguments are based on spin geometry.

**Related project(s):****37**Boundary value problems and index theory on Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds**52**Spaces and Moduli Spaces of Riemannian Metrics with Curvature Bounds on compact and non-compact Manifolds II

We construct pairs of residually finite groups with isomorphic profinite completions such that one has non-vanishing and the other has vanishing real second bounded cohomology. The examples are lattices in different higher rank simple Lie groups. Using Galois cohomology, we actually show that \(\operatorname{SO}^0(n,2)\) for \(n \ge 6\) and the exceptional groups \(E_{6(-14)}\) and \(E_{7(-25)}\) constitute the complete list of higher rank Lie groups admitting such examples.

**Related project(s):****58**Profinite perspectives on l2-cohomology

Based on the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index formula, we construct an obstruction to positive scalar curvature metrics with mean convex boundaries on spin manifolds of infinite K-area. We also characterize the extremal case. Next we show a general deformation principle for boundary conditions of metrics with lower scalar curvature bounds. This implies that the relaxation of boundary conditions often induces weak homotopy equivalences of spaces of such metrics. This can be used to refine the smoothing of codimension-one singularites a la Miao and the deformation of boundary conditions a la Brendle-Marques-Neves, among others. Finally, we construct compact manifolds for which the spaces of positive scalar curvature metrics with mean convex boundaries have nontrivial higher homotopy groups.

Publisher | World Scientific |

Book | M Gromov, B. Lawson (eds): Perspectives in Scalar Curvature |

Volume | 2 |

Pages | 325-377 |

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**Related project(s):****37**Boundary value problems and index theory on Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds**52**Spaces and Moduli Spaces of Riemannian Metrics with Curvature Bounds on compact and non-compact Manifolds II

This paper investigates realisations of elliptic differential operators of general order on manifolds with boundary following the approach of Bär-Ballmann to first order elliptic operators. The space of possible boundary values of elements in the maximal domain is described as a Hilbert space densely sandwiched between two mixed order Sobolev spaces. The description uses Calderón projectors which, in the first order case, is equivalent to results of Bär-Bandara using spectral projectors of an adapted boundary operator. Boundary conditions that induce Fredholm as well as regular realisations, and those that admit higher order regularity, are characterised. In addition, results concerning spectral theory, homotopy invariance of the Fredholm index, and well-posedness for higher order elliptic boundary value problems are proven.

Journal | Advances in Mathematics |

Publisher | Elsevier |

Volume | 420 |

Pages | 1-123 |

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**Related project(s):****37**Boundary value problems and index theory on Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds

We provide Fourier expansions of vector-valued eigenfunctions of the hyperbolic Laplacian that are twist-periodic in a horocycle direction. The twist may be given by any endomorphism of a finite-dimensional vector space; no assumptions on invertibility or unitarity are made. Examples of such eigenfunctions include vector-valued twisted automorphic forms of Fuchsian groups. We further provide a detailed description of the Fourier coefficients and explicitly identify each of their constituents, which intimately depend on the eigenvalues of the twisting endomorphism and the size of its Jordan blocks. In addition, we determine the growth properties of the Fourier coefficients.

Journal | Commun. Number Theory Phys. |

Volume | 17, no. 1 |

Pages | 173-248 |

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**Related project(s):****70**Spectral theory with non-unitary twists

For every number field and every Cartan Killing type, there is an associated split simple algebraic group. We examine whether the corresponding arithmetic subgroups are profinitely solitary so that the commensurability class of the profinite completion determines the commensurability class of the group among finitely generated residually finite groups. Assuming Grothendieck rigidity, we essentially solve the problem by Galois cohomological means.

**Related project(s):****58**Profinite perspectives on l2-cohomology

Using variational methods together with symmetries given by singular Riemannian foliations with positive dimensional leaves, we prove the existence of an infinite number of sign-changing solutions to Yamabe type problems, which are constant along the leaves of the foliation, and one positive solution of minimal energy among any other solution with these symmetries. In particular, we find sign-changing solutions to the Yamabe problem on the round sphere with new qualitative behavior when compared to previous results, that is, these solutions are constant along the leaves of a singular Riemannian foliation which is not induced neither by a group action nor by an isoparametric function. To prove the existence of these solutions, we prove a Sobolev embedding theorem for general singular Riemannian foliations, and a Principle of Symmetric Criticality for the associated energy functional to a Yamabe type problem.

Journal | Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations |

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**Related project(s):****43**Singular Riemannian foliations and collapse

Building on work of Bowden-Hensel-Webb, we study the action of the homeomorphism group of a surface $S$ on the fine curve graph $\mathcal{C}^\dagger(S)$. While the definition of $\mathcal{C}^\dagger(S)$ parallels the classical curve graph for mapping class groups, we show that the dynamics of the action of $\mathrm{Homeo}(S)$ on $\mathcal{C}^\dagger(S)$ is much richer: homeomorphisms induce parabolic isometries in addition to elliptics and hyperbolics, and all positive reals are realized as asymptotic translation lengths.

When the surface $S$ is a torus, we relate the dynamics of the action of a homeomorphism on $\mathcal{C}^\dagger(S)$ to the dynamics of its action on the torus via the classical theory of {\em rotation sets}. We characterize homeomorphisms acting hyperbolically, show asymptotic translation length provides a lower bound for the area of the rotation set, and, while no characterisation purely in terms of rotation sets is possible, we give sufficient conditions for elements to be elliptic or parabolic.

Journal | Adv. Math |

Volume | 408 Part B |

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**Related project(s):****38**Geometry of surface homeomorphism groups

Journal | Invent. math. |

Publisher | Springer |

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**Related project(s):****65**Resonances for non-compact locally symmetric spaces

Given a Chevalley group $\mathcal{G}$ of classical type and a Borel subgroup $\mathcal{B} \subseteq \mathcal{G}$, we compute the $\Sigma$-invariants of the $S$-arithmetic groups $\mathcal{B}(\Z[1/N])$, where $N$ is a product of large enough primes. To this end, we let $\mathcal{B}(\Z[1/N])$ act on a Euclidean building $X$ that is given by the product of Bruhat--Tits buildings $X_p$ associated to $\mathcal{G}$, where $p$ is a prime dividing $N$. In the course of the proof we introduce necessary and sufficient conditions for convex functions on $\CAT(0)$-spaces to be continuous. We apply these conditions to associate to each simplex at infinity $\tau \subset \pinf X$ its so-called parabolic building $X^{\tau}$ and to study it from a geometric point of view. Moreover, we introduce new techniques in combinatorial Morse theory, which enable us to take advantage of the concept of essential $n$-connectivity rather than actual $n$-connectivity. Most of our building theoretic results are proven in the general framework of spherical and Euclidean buildings. For example, we prove that the complex opposite each chamber in a spherical building $\Delta$ contains an apartment, provided $\Delta$ is thick enough and $\Aut(\Delta)$ acts chamber transitively on $\Delta$.

Journal | Transactions of the American Mathematical Society |

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**Related project(s):****8**Parabolics and invariants

The main theme of this paper is higher virtual algebraic fibering properties of right-angled Coxeter groups (RACGs), with a special focus on those whose defining flag complex is a finite building.

We prove for particular classes of finite buildings that their random induced subcomplexes have a number of strong properties, most prominently that they are highly connected.

From this we are able to deduce that the commutator subgroup of a RACG, with defining flag complex a finite building of a certain type, admits an epimorphism to Z whose kernel has strong topological finiteness properties.

We additionally use our techniques to present examples where the kernel is of type F_2 but not FP_3, and examples where the RACG is hyperbolic and the kernel is finitely generated and non-hyperbolic.

The key tool we use is a generalization of an approach due to Jankiewicz--Norin--Wise involving Bestvina--Brady discrete Morse theory applied to the Davis complex of a RACG, together with some probabilistic arguments.

Journal | Journal of Topology |

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**Related project(s):****8**Parabolics and invariants

Given a finitely generated group G that is relatively finitely presented with respect to a collection of peripheral subgroups, we prove that every infinite subgroup H of G that is bounded in the relative Cayley graph of G is conjugate into a peripheral subgroup. As an application, we obtain a trichotomy for subgroups of relatively hyperbolic groups. Moreover we prove the existence of the relative exponential growth rate for all subgroups of limit groups.

Journal | Algebraic and Geometric Topology |

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**Related project(s):****8**Parabolics and invariants

We give a topological classification of Lawson's bipolar minimal surfaces corresponding to his ξ- and η-family. Therefrom we deduce upper as well as lower bounds on the area of these surfaces, and find that they are not embedded.

**Related project(s):****25**The Willmore energy of degenerating surfaces and singularities of geometric flows**67**Asymptotics of singularities and deformations

We obtain estimates on nonlocal quantities appearing in the Volume Preserving Mean Curvature Flow (VPMCF) in the closed, Euclidean setting. As a result we demonstrate that blowups of finite time singularities of VPMCF are ancient solutions to Mean Curvature Flow (MCF), prove that monotonicity methods may always be applied at finite times and obtain information on the asymptotics of the flow.

**Related project(s):****25**The Willmore energy of degenerating surfaces and singularities of geometric flows**67**Asymptotics of singularities and deformations

We demonstrate that the property of being Alexandrov immersed is preserved along mean curvature flow. Furthermore, we demonstrate that mean curvature flow techniques for mean convex embedded flows such as noncollapsing and gradient estimates also hold in this setting. We also indicate the necessary modifications to the work of Brendle-Huisken to allow for mean curvature flow with surgery for the Alexandrov immersed, 2-dimensional setting.

**Related project(s):****25**The Willmore energy of degenerating surfaces and singularities of geometric flows**67**Asymptotics of singularities and deformations

This paper investigates the question of stability for a class of Ricci flows which start at possibly non-smooth metric spaces. We show that if the initial metric space is Reifenberg and locally bi-Lipschitz to Euclidean space, then two solutions to the Ricci flow whose Ricci curvature is uniformly bounded from below and whose curvature is bounded by c⋅t−1 converge to one another at an exponential rate once they have been appropriately gauged. As an application, we show that smooth three dimensional, complete, uniformly Ricci-pinched Riemannian manifolds with bounded curvature are either compact or flat, thus confirming a conjecture of Hamilton and Lott.

**Related project(s):****75**Solutions to Ricci flow whose scalar curvature is bounded in L^p II

Extending earlier work of Tian, we show that if a manifold admits a metric that is almost hyperbolic in a suitable sense, then there exists an Einstein metric that is close to the given metric in the \(C^{2,\alpha}\)-topology. In dimension 3 the original manifold only needs to have finite volume, and the volume can be arbitrarily large. Applications include a new proof of the hyperbolization of 3-manifolds of large Hempel distance yielding some new geometric control on the hyperbolic metric, and an analytic proof of Dehn filling and drilling that allows the filling and drilling of arbitrary many cusps and tubes.

**Related project(s):****51**The geometry of locally symmetric manifolds via natural maps